Bibliography for Famille: De La Mare
The details regarding the ship La Nouvelle France and its arrival date in Québec can be found in the section covering Les Filles du Roi at Migrations . This website is constantly being up updated with new information.
For the coverage of the Filles du Roi I relied on Gagné, Peter J. King’s Daughters and Founding Mothers: The Filles du Roi, 1663-1673, Volume 1. Orange Park, Florida: Quintin Publications 2001. For the quote on the ratio of men to marriageable women see page 19. The characterization of the Filles du Roi as orphans and payment to recruiters is on page 23. For the pensions to large families see page 39.
The reference to engagés and return rates to France can be found on page 105 of Moogk, Peter N., La Nouvelle France: The Making of French Canada—A Cultural History. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press 2000. For King Louis’ concern for the vulnerability of the small colonial population in New France see page 13. The quote from Jean-Baptiste Colbert regarding the appearance of Les Filles du Roi is quoted in Moogk on page 106.
For the alleged Norwegian Viking origins of the De La Mare family and name as well as their connection to the Norman invasion of England by William the Conqueror see https://www.theislandwiki.org/index.php/De_La_Mare. The discussion questioning the Norwegian origins and the weakness in the position put forth by D.C. Douglas see http://www.deloriahurst.com/deloriahurst%20page/3310.html. The quote from T.D. Kendrick on the Danish composition of Rollo’s army can be found in the 2013 edition of his 1930 History of the Vikings. New York: Fall River Press 2013, p. 195.
The surname De La Mare varies throughout the historical records as well as in modern day. While I prefer De La Mare, I preserve the spelling variations used in the reference documents. The linguistic origins of the name can be found in Dauzat, Albert, Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et Prénoms de France. Paris: Librairie Larousse 1951, pp. 185, 360. Additional detail can be found in Jacob, Roland, Votre nom et son histoire: Les noms de famille au Québec. Montréal: Les Éditions de l’Homme 2006, p. 180.
The evidence of Guillaume de La Mare as treasurer for the parish of Saint-Maclou comes from Neagley, Linda E., Disciplined Exuberance: The Parish Church of Saint-Maclou and Late Gothic Architecture in Rouen. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, p. 64. Neagley’s source comes from Series G, G6874 of the cartulaire for the parish fabrique which are housed in the Archives départementales de Seine-Maritime. Series G, G6872 and G6873 are available online. Construction for the structure was begun under the English during their occupation of Rouen and Normandy during the Hundred Years War (1337-1453). While the parish “was one of the poorest parishes in the city” the church was financed almost entirely on funds within the parish. (pp. 57-58). Despite the tough economic times of the period, the Dufour family of Rouen continued to direct its resources and attention to the construction of the church. The architectural significance of the structure, according to Neagley, stems from its characterization as “a rare example in the history of gothic architecture where a clear and coherent vision is manifested in the totality of its execution.” (p.24).
An additional historical account of Saint-Maclou as told through the tenures of its Curés (parish priests) can be found in Prévost, Chanoine L., Histoire de La Paroisse Et Des Curés De Saint-Maclou: depuis la Fondation jusqu’à nos jours (1219-1966). Rouen: Editions Maugard, 1970.
The many images from the parish registers are appropriately referenced in the main post. My continued thanks to Professor Christine Reno for her expert paleographic and translation assistance.
For my coverage of the Wars of Religion in Rouen I relied primarily on Benedict, Philip, Rouen during the Wars of Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. The percentage of Protestants in 1560-61 in Rouen and the anticipated triumph of their Protestant cause to transform France can be found on pages 52-54. The description of Catholic efforts at summary executions of Protestants and the rescue efforts by Protestants as well as the quote describing the Protestant actions at the Corpus Christi Day procession are found on pages 61-62. One example of the virulence of the Catholic reaction to Protestantism is Benedict’s account of the cure of Saint-Maclou and grand vicar of the cathedral, Adam Sécard whose anti-Protestantism was so pronounced he had to be reprimanded by parlement in 1552 for his violence. See p. 67 and footnote 2 on page 69.
For Benedict’s discussion of the differences in world views of the Protestants and Catholics and the concept of Protestantism as “pollution” see page 63-64. According to Benedict, Protestant tactics to attack and mock rituals and ritual objects was a “desecration, and desecration placed the community in danger” of divine retribution. For a lengthier discussion on the meaning of religious violence during this period see Chapter 6 “The Rites of Violence” in Davis, Natalie Z., Society and Culture in Early Modern France. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1975, pp. 152-188. Also of interest is her coverage of women during the Wars of Religion in Chapter 3 “City Women and Religious Change” on pages 65-96. Davis records one instance in Aix-en-Provence where a group of female butchers beat and hung a wife of a Protestant bookseller. (p. 93).
Benedict’s coverage of Protestant efforts to seek assistance from the English resulting in the Treaty of Hampton Court is found on page 100. His coverage of the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre appears on pages 125-130. His characterization of the post massacre period through the 1580s as relatively peaceful is on page 163. The quote regarding the role of notables bourgeois and marchands appears on page 6.
Another useful source for this period is Lloyd, Howell A., The Rouen Campaign 1590-1592: Politics, Warfare and the Early-Modern State. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973. Lloyd covers the cosmopolitan nature of Rouen on pages 2-3. Lloyd’s book is a detailed account of the activities in Rouen during Henry IV’s attempts to defeat the Spanish backed Catholic League to secure his claim to the throne of France. Capturing Rouen was essential to this goal.
For an understanding of the complicated governmental structure of Early Modern France, I recommend Harding, Robert R., Anatomy of a Power Elite: The Provincial Governors of Early Modern France. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1978. The structure of government and the balance of power between the King and the different layers of local and regional governments is essential to understand in order to fully grasp the effect of the spread of Protestantism and the Wars of Religion as well as the efforts of the French Kings to exercise their authority and power to govern the people of France directly rather than through intermediaries.
All of the images found in the parish registers are available on line at http://www.archivesdepartementales76.net/. I could not find any evidence for the first child of David De La Mare and Anne de Bussevestre. The only mention I have seen comes from Fichier Origine’s entry for Marie De La Mare at http://fichierorigine.com/recherche?numero=242258. I was able to verify the parish entries for her other siblings all of which are available online. The references are:
Alexandre, 04-01-1638, 3E 00999-1636-1638- Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou) image 280 of 345; Jeanne, 28-03-1639, 4E 02080- 1638-164 – Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou) image 21 of 70; Guillaume, 29-05-1640, 4E 02080 - 164 -1641- Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou), image 29 of 79; Anne, 26-09-1642, 4E 02081 – 1641-1642 – Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou) image 130 of 177; Michel, 01-01-1647, 3E 00999 – 1643- 1648/01/18 – Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou) image 265 of 319; Robert, 30-03-1649, 3E 00999 – 1648- 1651- Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou) image 58 of 167 and Marguerite, 19-02-1652, 3E 00999 – 1651 – 1655 – Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou) image 12 of 180.
Bibliography for Personne: Guillaume Regnault Part Three
For information on transatlantic voyages see Moogk, Peter N., La Nouvelle France: The Making of French Canada—A Cultural History. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press 2000, pp 124-125. His characterization of churchwardens and fabriques can be found on page 73.
The information on the Sénéchaussée and the Custom of Paris comes from Wikipedia. The information on Chartier de Lotbinière come from a variety of sources. See André Vachon, “CHARTIER DE LOTBINIÈRE, LOUIS-THÉANDRE,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 1, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed June 18, 2017, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/chartier_de_lotbiniere_louis_theandre_1E.html. See also Kingsford, William, History of Canada: Canada under French Rule. Toronto: Rowsell & Hutchison 1887, pp. 318-319, 322, 332-333, 347-348.
For a description of Guillaume’s duties working for Lotbinière see Our Tangled French Canadian Roots: A History of The People who were Part of Our Gregoire, Adam, Martel and Beaudry Lines by Jan Gregoire Coombs, Middleton Wisconsin, 2009, p. 51 and Bessière, Armand, La Domesticité Dans La Colonie Laurentienne Au XVIIE Et Au Début de XVIIIE Siècle (1640-1710). PhD Dissertation, 2007.
The information regarding Guillaume’s payment from the Crown to remain in Canada comes from Verney, Jack, The Good Regiment: The Carignan-Salières Regiment in Canada 1665-1668. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press 1991, p. 111.
The copy of the marriage record comes from Quebec, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1967, Ancestry.com. The data for the children comes from a combination of the Drouin collection and Ancestry.com. Quebec, Genealogical Dictionary of Canadian Families (Tanguay Collection), 1608-1890 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. See also Gagné, Peter J. King’s Daughters and Founding Mothers: The Filles du Roi, 1663-1673, Volume 1. Orange Park, Florida: Quintin Publications 2001 pp. 193-194.
There are multiple versions of Catalogne’s map available online. For a book version see “Seigniorial Settlement in 1709” Trudel, Marcel, Atlas de la Nouvelle-France/An Atlas of New France. Les Presses de l'Université Laval, Québec, 1968, p. 166.
The Notarial Records of Gilles Rageot come from Ancestry.com. Quebec, Canada, Notarial Records, 1626-1935 [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016. Original data: Fonds Cour Supérieure. Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
The reference to Guillaume’s potash contract can be found in Trudel, Marcel. Histoire De La Nouvelle-France, Volume IV, La Seigneurie de la Compagnie des Indes Occidentale, 1663-1674. Québec: Fides, 1997 fn 45 p. 435.
Guillaume’s service as a church warden has been documented in Malouin, Reine, Charlesbourg 1660-1949. Québec: Les Editions La Liberté, 1972, pp. 47-48. Trudelle, Charles, Paroisse de Charlesbourg. Québec: A. Coté et Cie, 1887, p. 32; 314. Trudelle’s book is available in its entirety for download via Google Books. Marcel Trudel’s recollection on the churchwarden’s place in the local community can be found in Trudel, Marcel, Memoirs of a Less Travelled Road: A Historian’s Life, translated by Jane Brierley. Montréal: Véhicule Press 2002, pp. 23-24. The statement that Guillaume worked for the Jesuits can be found on page 100 in Linda Turner's The Lemire (La Mere) family. St. Paul 1978. It is self published and is available online at Ancestry.com as well as librairies throughout the nation.
Bibliography for Personne: Guillaume Regnault Part Two
Much of my narrative account of the Regiment relies on Jack Verney’s The Good Regiment: The Carignan-Salières Regiment in Canada 1665-1668. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University Press 1991. Although perhaps less useful from an analytical perspective, I have found it worthwhile to review earlier accounts of the Carignan-Regiment as the style of historical writing differed in the late 19th and early 20th Century. Historians from this earlier period were more prone to inserting extended quotes from primary or contemporary sources which can be a goldmine for those who do not have ready access to national or local archives. For example there is an extended quote on pages 339-340 recording the Dutch reaction to Courcelle’s expedition in Kingsford, William, History of Canada: Canada under French Rule Toronto: Rowsell & Hutchison 1887.
“We learn that ‘by mistake of his guides’ M. de Courcelles ‘hapned to fall short of the castles of the Mauhaukes, and to encamp within two miles of Schonectade.’ The arrival caused a deputation to ask ‘Monsier Coursell’ why he brought ‘such a body of armed men into the Dominions of His Majesty. Surely,’ says the chronicler, ‘so bould and hardy attempt hath not hapned in any age’: M. de Courcelles was surprised to learn that the country was claimed by England, and that there was a garrison at Albany of sixty soldiers, with nine pieces of ordnance, under Captain Baker.’ Those who observed the words and countenance of Monsieur Coursell saw him disturbed in minde that the King was Master of these parts of the country where he expected to have found the Dutch interest uppermost, saying that the King of England did grasp all America.’”
Another such example is Lovell, John, Lovell’s history of the Dominion of Canada, and other parts of British America . Montreal: Lovell Printing and Publishing Company 1876.
The quote from François Le Mercier and the quote from Marquis de Salières regarding the building of forts come from the CBC series Le Canada: A People’s History.
I relied on Marcel Trudel’s work on the population of Canada and the effect of such a large influx of troops. See Trudel, Marcel, The Beginnings of New France 1524-1663 Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1973, p. 246 and Trudel, marcel, La Population Du Canada En 1663, Fides: Montréal, pp. 2, 11.
The correspondence of Marie De L’Incarnation are required reading for anyone interested in the early French settlement. Not just religious in focus, she documents in some detail on the daily activities of the colony for an extended period of time. I used the Dome Guy Oury edition Marie of the Incarnation [1599 – 1672]: Correspondence translated from the French by Sr. St. Dominic Kelly published by Irish Ursuline Union, 2000.
The work of William B. Munro is available via Google Books and through Archive.org. See Munro, William Bennett, Documents relating to the seigniorial tenure in Canada, 1598-1854. Toronto: The Champlain Society 1908, p. xxxiv.
Much of the content in this post relies on research I conducted over five years ago in which I relied on a number of other online resources for quotes and narrative overview which are no longer valid URLs. Several of these quotes and much of the narrative can also be found in Verney.
Bibliography for Personne: Guillaume Regnault Part One
Despite the presence of some errors in Tanguay’s work, his 7 volume Dictionnaire généalogique des familles canadiennes françaises depuis les origins de la colonie jusqu’à nos jours is a good first reference for anyone interested in French-Canadien geneaology. It is also available as the Genealogical Dictionary of Canadian Families (Tanguay Collection), 1608-1890, on Ancestry.com.
Emile Vaillancourt collaborated with Archange Godbout in producing La Conquête du Canada par les Normands: Biographie de la première generation normande du Canada. Montréal: G. Ducharme 1930. He profiles Guillaume on page 222. Unfortunately he also cites 1644 as the year of birth.
I am grateful to Dominique Ritchot of Fichier Origine for providing me with the correct baptismal date for Guillaume and for the link to the Saint-Jouin parish registers in the archives. As a result I was able to locate all of Guillaume’s siblings in the register. All of the extracts from the parish registers come from the Archives départementales de Seine-Maritime online at http://www.archivesdepartementales76.net/. The Regnault family can be found in 4E 02934-1623-1657-Saint-Jouin: Anne (image 37 of 90) Catherine (image 41 of 90), Guillaume (image 49 of 90), Guillaume (image 52 of 90), Françoise (image 61 of 90), Marie (image 72 of 90), and Antoine (image 84 of 90).
Unfortunately there is no baptismal record for Guillaume’s father due to a gap in the parish registers. They were probably destroyed or lost at some point in history. The best guess places the baptismal date for the paternal Guillaume in the period of 1610-1612. This is based upon the understanding of the relative ages of marriage during 17th Century France. The historian Pierre Goubert has noted that women married at a later age during this period, usually between the ages of 23 and 25 while men usually married between the ages of 27 and 30. The marriage date of Guillaume Regnault and Susanne De La Haye is not found in the parish registers of Saint-Jouin though it probably occurred either in 1638 or 1639 given the baptismal date of their first child Anne on February 1, 1640.
Goubert’s The French Peasantry in the Seventeenth Century; translated by Ian Patterson (Cambridge University Press 1986) is a short but dense account. I soon abandoned taking notes in favor of photocopying entire chapters of the book for later reference. He covers the age of marriage on page 64 and the death of a child on page 52. He notes that much of the time the parents did not even attend the funeral as they are not noted on the burial entry in the parish records.
The standard account of the Carignan-Salières Regiment is Jack Verney’s The Good Regiment: The Carignan-Salières Regiment in Canada 1665-1668. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University Press 1991. Like Goubert, Verney’s account is less than 150 pages but dense with information. Verney’s account attempts to correct or to find the reality behind the myth spun by the nationalist historians such as Benjamin Sulte and Abbé Lionel Groulx. According to Verney, Groulx sought “to turn the province of Québec into a spiritual and national homeland for Franco-Americans, a refuge…to provide a bulwark against the advancing tide of Protestant, English-speaking materialism." (p. vii). For Verney, the men of the regiment were not the progenitors of some virtuous race or people but rather “a workaday seventeenth-century infantry unit sent to fight overseas." (p.ix). Verney's coverage of soldier recruitment appears on pages 7-8, 11 and 24.
The full version of the soldiers who remained in Canada can be found on the New France New Horizons website at http://champlain2004.org/html/11/03_e.html.
I learned of Michel Langlois’ research and assessment that Guillaume Regnault was not on the ship La Paix from the Migrations website. This site specializes in the soldiers of the Carignan-Salières Regiment and the Filles du Roi. The site’s layout is very busy but it is packed with information including identifying the ships and dates of arrival for the soldiers and the Filles du Roi. Their entry on Guillaume (Regnauld) can be found at http://www.migrations.fr/compagniescarignan/compagnielacolonelle.htm. One of the site coordinators Bernard Quillivic suggests that Guillaume may have arrived in 1662 as a soldier with the Governor D’Avaugourt. I think this is improbable given that Guillaume would only have been 16 or 17 years of age.
The most direct evidence that Guillaume was already in Canada before the soldiers arrived appears in Trudel., Marcel, Histoire de la Nouvelle–France: Volume IV, La seigneurie de la Compagnie des Indes occidentales 1663-1674. Québec : Fides 1997. In footnote 87 on page 308 Trudel lists Guillaume Regnaud as one of 12 habitants who enlisted. The use of the term habitant suggests that Guillaume was already established in Québec and Trudel would not have referred to him as such if he had been a soldier. The text reads in French: “Il faut prendre garde qu’ily avait des soldats au pays avant 1665, qui y sont encore en 1666, au nombre de 9, et que nous portons au catalogue, comme aussi 5 militaires qui se sont retires du service en arrivent, pour s’integrer à la population. Enfin, il faut conserver dans le catalogue une douzaine d’habitants qui se sont enrôlés formellement dans les troupes de 1665.” His coverage of immigration in 1665 appears on pages 233-239.
Trudel's book contains over 800 pages of text plus what could be a valuable bibliography. Unfortunately my ability to read French is limited and such a tome would take me years to finish though I have no doubt the volume would prove illuminating.
The reference to engagés comes from Greer, Alan, The People of New France. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997, pp. 15-16.
Bibliography for Evenement: Charivari and Youth Groups
The two main sources used for this post are Davis, Natalie Z., Society and Culture in Early Modern France. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1975 and Mandrou, Robert, Introduction to Modern France, 1500-1640: An Essay in Historical Psychology; translated by R. E. Hallmark. New York: Harper & Row 1975.
Davis’ book is a collection of eight essays of which the bulk of this post draws on Chapter 4 “The Reasons of Misrule” pp. 97-123. The song quoted at the opening of the post appears in Chapter 7 “Printing and the People” p. 200. It was translated from the French by Christine Reno. The original French is
Quand ils ont sceu au village
Que ce mary
N’avoit non plus de courage
Ils ont faict charyvary
Pour la riser….
Ent res grande diligence
Un bon garcon
Du village par plaisance
Fit la chanson.
Mandrou’s book is a brilliant look at the mentalité of the age. I drew primarily from Chapter 9, “Temporary forces for solidarity: youth societies and feast days.” The extended quote regarding the Feast of Fools appears on pp. 135-136. It is a contemporary account from the Cordeliers of Antibes and Mandrou’s source for the quote was Thiers, J.B., Traité des jeux et divertissements (Paris 1686). Mandrou’s assertion that the youth groups helped spread the Reformation appears on p. 134.
Bibliography for Nom: Regnault
The origins of the name Regnault are covered in Dauzat, Albert, Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et Prénoms de France. Paris: Librairie Larousse 1951, p. 516 and Morlet, Marie-Thérèse, Les Noms de Personne sur le Territoire de L’Ancienne Gaule de VIe au XII Siècle, Vol. 1: Les Noms Issus du Germanique Continental et Les Créations Gallo-Germaniques. Paris: Éditions Du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 1968, pp. 183-188. Morlet further notes that with respect to the elements Ragan and Rag, “Cet élément se rattache au got. ragin, v. isl. regin, decision, v. sax. regan, puissant; got. raginon, conseiller, v. nor. ragna, invoquer. L’élément rag- que nous relevons à côté de ragin doit représenter une forme courte” p. 183. Morlet’s book is of interest given its focus on the names appearing from the 6th to the 12th Century.
For a more recent work that focuses solely on the family names prevalent in Québec see Jacob, Roland, Votre nom et son histoire: Les noms de famille au Québec. Montréal: Les Éditions de l’Homme 2006. Jacob covers the surname Renaud in multiple pages but primarily on p. 84. He covers the conversion from the Roman naming convention to the Frankish naming convention on p. 49. See also page 18 where he classifies names of Germanic origin as deriving from the Franks.
The citation for the frequency of the name Regnault in fifteenth century Normandy comes from the open access pre-print, subsequently published as Darlu, Pierre; Bloothooft, Gerrit; Boattini, Alessio; Brouwer, Leendeert; Brouwer, Matthijs; Brunet, Guy; Chareille, Pascal; Chesire, James; Coates, Richard; Longley, Paul; Dräger, Kathrin; Desjardins, Bertrand; Hanks, Patrick; Mandemakers, Kees; Mateos, Pablo;Pettener, Davide; Useli, Antonella; and Manni, Franz (2012) “The Family Name as Socio-Cultural Feature and Genetic Metaphor; From Concepts to Methods, “ Human Biology: Vol. 84: Iss 2, Article 5. Available at http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1007&context=humbiol_preprints
According to the authors the “two-element naming system still in use in France today” emerged in the 11th Century. The paper also covers, among many other topics, “the Patronymic stability: Normandy 1383 to 1515”.
Linda Turner’s The Lemire (La Mere) family. St. Paul, 1978 appears to be self-published. It is available online at Ancestry.com as well as some libraries throughout the nation.
Jan Gregoire Coombs’ Our Tangled French Canadian Roots: A History of The People who were Part of Our Gregoire, Adam, Martel and Beaudry Lines (Middleton Wisconsin, 2009) covers Guillaume Regnault on p. 51.
Bibliography for Place: Saint-Jouin-sur-Mer
All of the extant parish registers from Saint-Jouin are available online from the Archives départementales de Seine-Maritime. They are a challenge to decipher as many are in poor condition and the scribes gave no thought for neat penmanship. I am fortunate to have had the paleographic and translation assistance of Professor Christine Reno who patiently waded through the many images I sent her way.
Finding information on the history of Saint-Jouin was not an easy task. There is little to no information available in English and there is little direct mention of Saint-Jouin even in French sources that I uncovered. I was delighted to come across A. Lechevalier’s Recherches Historiques Sur Les Communes du Canton de Criquetot-L’Esneval Depuis L’Époque Féodale Proprement Dite Jusqu’a la Révolution (Paris: Librarie Normande, 1897). Lechevalier offers several pages directly on Saint-Jouin. The book is available in downloadable PDF via Google Books.
The work of Abbé Jean Benoît Désiré Cochet provided some important details though I barely dedicated the time and attention his work deserves. His Les églises de l’arrondissement du Havre (Ingouville: Gaffney frères, 1845-1846) was particularly useful and is also available in Google Books.
A brief history of the church is available from Saint-Jouin’s website at http://www.st-jouin-bruneval.fr/histoire/eglise/.
For background reading on Normandy and France during the Middle Ages I recommend Felice Lifshitz’s The Norman Conquest of Pious Neustria: Historiographic Discourse and Saintly Relics 684-1090 (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies 1995). Lifshitz’ study covers the period of history after Roman Gaul. With the arrival of the Frankish tribes and the establishment of the Merovingian dynasty the former Roman Gaul became known by the Latin term “Francia” while the area of much of modern day Normandy was part of the Frankish province of Neustria. With the arrival of the Vikings or “Norsemen” in the 10th Century the lands in and around the Seine Valley became known as Normandy.
Patrick J. Geary’s Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988) provides a brisk survey of the Merovingian period (476-750 CE). Geary sees the Merovingian Period in terms of its continuity with Late Antiquity. He illustrates the fluid interchange between the Roman and “Barbarian” cultures and how they cross pollinated one another. It is a mistake to view this period as a “Dark Age” void of “civilization.”