Notes for Evénement: Marie de La Mare and the Trial of Claude-Philiberte Pahin (Pachin)
The source document for this post can be found at the Bibliothèque et Archives Nationales Du Québec online at http://numerique.banq.qc.ca/patrimoiLa…a trouvé ?e/archives/52327/3348621.
The individuals and roles of those involved are as follows:
Claude-Philiberte Pahin (Pachin), wife of Pierre Coirier, defendant
daughter of Pierre Coirier, defendant
son of Pierre Coirier, party to the incident
Jean Bernard dit Anse, complainant
wife of Jean Bernard dit Hanse, witness (victim)
daughter of Jean Bernard dit Hanse, witness (victim)
Marie Lamarre (La Mare), wife of Guillaume Renaud (Regnault), witness (victim)
René Louis Chartier, Lord of Lotbinière, counselor to the king, lieutenant general for civil and criminal matters in the district (prévôté) of Quebec
François Genaple, Clerk
(Exploit de) Marandeau, bailiff (huissier)
Jeanne Chalu, wife of Joachin Girard, witness
Anne Girard, daughter of Joachin Girard, witness
Marie (Anne) Regnault, daughter of Guillaume Regnault (Renaud), witness
Marie Galerneau, wife of Michel Varet (Verret), witness
The "village" of Saint-Bernard would probably be considered nothing more than a neighborhood in today's parlance. Along with la petite Auvergne, Saint-Claude, Bourg-Royal, Saint-Joseph, and Saint-Romain, Saint Bernard formed the parish of Charlesbourg. See https://www.ville.quebec.qc.ca/publications/patrimoine/docs/histoire_de_raconter_charlesbourg.pdf
The section pertaining to the residents of St. Bernard’s in the census of 1681 can be found on page 82 of volume 5 of Benjamin Sulte’s Histoire des Canadiens-Français available online at https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015084540635;view=1up;seq=122.
The Indian tribes that are generally referred to as the Iroquois refer to themselves as the Haudenosaunee, "People of the Long House". The term Iroquois is considered to be pejorative. I first ran across this issue in David Vermette's A Distinct Alien Race: The Untold Story of Franco-Americans: Industrialization, Immigration, Religious Strife, Montréal: Baraka Books (2018) p. 25. Vermette merely mentions the pejorative nature of the term Iroquois. The Wikipedia page for the term Iroquois covers the historical debate regarding the origins of the term Iroquois. While fascinating, the germane point is that Iroquois arises outside the tradition of the referential population whereas Haudenosaunee is the term used within the population and culture.
The phrase “Sur les fonds de bapteme” appears throughout the document as well when describing the individual’s relationship to the parties involved. According to the 1852 edition of Grand Dictionnaire Français-Anglais et Anglais-Français this phrase means to be a godparent (see entry for Tenir p. 1020). “un enfant sur les fonds de baptême [ en être le parrain ou la marraine), to stand godfather or godmother to a child.”
The title under which the document is catalogued refers to the defendant by her maiden name Claude-Philiberte Pahin (Pachin). The French practice was for the woman to retain her maiden name throughout her life to retain the connection to the house of her father. However, throughout the document the defendant is referred to as the "femme de Pierre Coirier" reflecting the legal identity of the woman being subsumed by her husband. Additionally, although the title refers to Jean Bernard dit Hanse, the body of the document simply refers to he and his wife as Anse. Dit names were employed for a variety of reasons one of which was to distinguish families of the same surname. The other dit name that appears in the document refers to Michel Verret as "dit Laverdure." I confirmed Verret's identity with the updated edition by Charles Beaumont of Gosselin, David, Dictionnaire Généalogique des Familles De Charlesbourg: Depuis La Fondation De La Paroisse Jusqu' À Nos Jours.
There are multiple references to the children passing through the bled of Anse. I believe this is a rendition of the word blé which means "corn." However, the term corn did not necessarily refer to maize but rather any type of grain crop such as wheat and rye.
The Chemin du Roy or "King's Road" runs along the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River in Québec. The historic route follows along the current Quebec Route 138 and Quebec Autoroute 40. There is even a tourist-oriented website that highlights the history and attractions along the historic route at https://www.lecheminduroy.com/en.
The livre was the basis of French currency established by Charlemagne and was equal to one pound of silver. It was the equivalent of 20 sous or sols which were further divided into 12 deniers. Although there were earlier occurrences, the modern franc did not arrive until the French Revolution of the 1790s. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_livre.
Michel Verret had a close association with Guillaume Regnault as noted in the notarial records see Personne-Guillaume-Regnault-part-three. Michel’s son Joseph (1671-1708) married Guillaume's daughter Marie-Louise Regnault (1676-1708). Michel Verret married Marie Galerneau in 1683 when Marie was only 16 years old. His first marriage was to Marie Deschamps. The infant referred to in the document was probably Elizabeth Verret who was baptized in February 1686. Unfortunately, the record in the Drouin Collection is a mess.
The phrase "avec un baston" appears throughout the document to describe Madame Coirier's arrival at the scene. Based upon a later reference to Madame Coirier's "ballet (balai)" it would appear she attacked Madame Anse with her broom handle.
It is repeated throughout the document that Madame Coirier threw Madame Anse's coiffure into the fields as she ran back to her house. While this term has come to mean an elaborate hairstyle, it is not likely that Madame Anse was walking around in such a state. It is more likely that she was wearing some kind of headdress or bonnet that Madame Coirier had in her hand as a result of the tussle.
Perhaps the most shocking of all the testimony comes from Jeanne Chalu's assertion that Madame Coirier called for her husband to bring an axe to cut off the arms of Madame Anse "et lui disait de lui apporter une hache pour couper les bras a ladite Anse."
With respect to the family ties between the Chartier's and the Regnault, I have often wondered how Guillaume Regnault ever entered into the employment of such an important individual as Louis-Théandre Chartier de Lotbinière. Given that I believe the evidence suggests that Guillaume arrived in Canada as an engagé rather than as a soldier, it is possible that his connection to Chartier was arranged prior to his arrival in Canada or began shortly thereafter. I am further intrigued by the curious suggestion that Chartier’s wife, Elisabeth D'Amours' father, Louis, was at one time married (his second wife) to Marie Regnault though she was not known to be related to the Regnault's of Saint Jouin. https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Regnault-8#_note-0.
The court proceedings appear to have begun with taking the statements of witnesses followed by the testimony of the defendant. At a subsequent phase, the witnesses and the accused were brought together where the opportunity was given to confirm or make alterations to their prior testimony. The defendant would be given the opportunity to respond to the testimony of the witnesses rather than just the questions of the investigator.
Madame Coirier's counter to Marie De La Mare's testimony refers to a confrontation between Marie and Madame Jobin which may have been violent as well. According to Madame Coirier, "la femme de Jobin l’a battuë il y a deux ou trois ans." The word battuë comes from the verb battre meaning "to beat."
The entry for Pierre Ragnault’s baptism in the Drouin collection can be seen here.
The proceedings appear to occur during the period of June 11, 1686 through July 22 1686.
June 11 Event
June 15 Testimony of Marie De La Mare (pg 1), Anne Girard (pg 3), and Marie Regnault (pg 4)
June 20 Testimony of Marie Galerneau (page 6)
June 23 Testimony of Jeanne Chalu (page 8)
July 2 Jean Bernard petitions for more food (page 10)
July 12 Defendant’s initial testimony (page 12)
July 20 Follow up testimony from all witnesses and Defendant (Marie De La Mare page 18; Anne Girard page 19; Marie Regnault page 19; Marie Galerneau page 20; Jeanne Chalu page 20; The Defendant begins page 22)
July 22 Sentencing (page 31)
Bibliography for Personne: Susanne De La haye
The quote regarding French women keeping their surname throughout their life comes from Natalie Zemon Davis, Society and Culture in Early Modern France Stanford University Press 1975 p. 71.
Robert Wheaton’s discussion of the maintenance of lineal rights to property can be found in his essay “Affinity and Descent in Seventeenth-Century Bordeaux” in Family & Sexuality in French History, ed. by Robert Wheaton and Tamara K. Hareven, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1980 pp.120-121. See page 117 for his statement on godparenthood.
On communal marital property in Normandy see Suzanne Desan’s essay “Making and Breaking Marriage: An Overview of Old Regime Marriage as a Social Practice’ in Family, Gender, and Law in Early Modern France, ed. by Suzanne Desan and Jeffrey Merrick, University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009, pp. 5-6.
For the origins of the surname of De La Haye I relied on a variety of sources including several online resources The Island Wiki, SurnameDB, House of Names and Wikipedia. As usual I also relied on Dauzet, Albert, Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms e Famille et Prénoms de France, Paris: Librairie Larousse, 1951 p. 322. Dauzet draws a link between De La Haye and the surname Deshayes as the plural (des- hayes) of De La Haye. While I did not find many instances of De La Haye in the registers of Gonneville-La-Mallet, I found numerous instances of Deshayes and Deshaies. This is not to suggest that there is a family connection. See also Roland Jacob Votre nom et son histoire: Les noms de famille au Québec, Montréal, Québec: Les Éditions de l’Homme 2006 pp 143, 183.
For Jean-Louis Flandrin’s discussion of kin see Flandrin, Jean-Louis, Families in former times: Kinship, household and sexuality. Translated by Richard Southern. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979, pp. 14-15. His coverage of endogamous marriage and kinship pp 34-35.
For my brief reference to Pierre Goubert see page 64 in The French Peasantry in the Seventeenth Century; translated by Ian Patterson (Cambridge University Press 1986)
Lechevalier’s description of Saint-Jouin can be found in A. Lechevalier’s Recherches Historiques Sur Les Communes du Canton de Criquetot-L’Esneval Depuis L’Époque Féodale Proprement Dite Jusqu’a la Révolution (Paris: Librarie Normande, 1897), pp. 141-152. His coverage of Gonneville-La-Mallet and Écultot can be found on pp. 108-119. His description of the market in Gonneville-la-Mallet appears on p. 108.
Natalie Zemon Davis’ treatment of youth abbeys can be found in Davis, Natalie Z., Society and Culture in Early Modern France. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1975 in Chapter 4 “The Reasons of Misrule” pp. 97-123. My reference to outside suitors being viewed as “poachers” is derived from pp. 106-107. See also Flandrin above and his coverage of the rite of the ‘barrier’ pp. 35-49.
I reviewed the relevant portions of the parish registers from Gonneville-la-Mallet, Écultot and Saint-Jouin available online from the Archives départementales de Seine-Maritime at http://www.archivesdepartementales76.net/. I am indebted, as always, to the paleographic skills and expert knowledge of the French language of Professor Christine Reno. I would never have located the baptismal record of Susanne De La Haye without the direct reference provided by Eric Mardoc author of Aventuriers haut-normands en Nouvelle-France, Hautot-Saint-Sulpice, France, 2007.
The reference to Guillaume Regnault’s baptismal record was covered previously in Personne: Guillaume Regnault: Part One
For an example of a reference to Anthoinette De La Haye see the Saint-Jouin parish register 4E 02934-1623-1657-Saint-Jouin.
The quote from Peter Moogk regarding correspondence between those that went to Canada and those they left behind comes from Moogk, Peter N., La Nouvelle France: The Making of French Canada—A Cultural History. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press 2000, pp. 137, 216.
The concluding quote comes from the poem “The Right Meaning” by César Vallejo, translated by Robert Bly, as it appears in The Rag and Bone Shop of the Heart: Poems for Men, edited by Robert Bly, James Hillman, and Michael Meade, Harper Perennial edition, 1993, p. 394.
Bibliography for Épilogue: Inhumation and Legacy
The data on the attendees of the multiple inhumations mentioned come from the Drouin Collection available at Ancestry.com.
Gosselin's comments on Charles Boismé on page 126 in Gosselin, David and Beaumont, Charles, Dictionnaire Généalogique Des Familles de Charlesbourg: Depuis La Fondation De La Paroisse Jusqu'à Nos Jours, Québec: 1906. Nabu Public Domain Reprint. Translation is my own. In footnote 2 Gosselin indicates that "Chs Boesmé est le premier ancêtre canadien de tous ceux qui portent ce nom, et le premier bedeau connu de la paroisse de Charlesbourg." In footnote 3, he notes that Boismé (also Boesmé) "résidait dans le quartier de l'ancien cimetière."
Gédéon Catalogne's map of 1709 indicates at least two plots of land for Boismé #626 and #539 as shown in https://www.renaudfamilyhistory.com/blog/2017/6/18/personne-guillaume-regnault-part-three.
The brief history of the cemetery is recounted in Malouin, Reine, Charlesbourg: 1660-1949. Québec: Les Editions La Liberté Inc. 1972, pp. 95-101. I utilized Google Translate to assist in deciphering Malouin's account of the cemetery and to identify the location of the old cemetery in le parc du Sacré-Coeur.
The description of the of the monument and excavations comes from Journal Le Carrefour de Québec at
The translated quotation in the text was derived from Google Translate.
I borrowed from Jack Verney’s interpretation of the works of Groulx, Sulte, Roy and Malchelosse found in The Good Regiment: The Carignan-Salières Regiment in Canada 1665-1668. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1991, pp vii-ix. For his assessment that the Regiment was less than a success in terms of military objectives see pp. 122-128.
For my thoughts on the importance of reinforcing ancestry and genealogy with a solid understanding of history I borrowed liberally from a combination of lectures by the historian Timothy Snyder, most notably Why History Matters and Remembrance, History, and Justice: Coming to Terms with Traumatic Pasts in Democratic Societies.
The quoted portion of the poem by William Stafford comes from the final two stanzas of “A Ritual to Read to Each Other” found in The Darkness Around Us Is Deep; Selected Poems of William Stafford. Edited and with an Introduction by Robert Bly. New York: Harper Perennial, 1993, pp. 135-136.
Bibliography for Personne: Marie De La Mare
The story of the “filles du roi” is well documented in numerous books and now a multitude of websites. Peter Gagné’s two volume King’s Daughters and Founding Mothers: The Filles du Roi, 1663-1673. Orange Park (Florida): Quintin Publications 2001 is a good place to start. I drew on Volume One for the transatlantic voyage, the arrival in Québec and the courtship period as well as the marriage process. See pp. 29, 31-33. The quotes from La Hontan on the vetting process for prospective husbands and the preference for farm girls appear on p. 36. The description of the notary process is provided on page 37. The statements that Marie could not sign the marriage contract and Marie and Guillaume settling in Québec after their marriage appear on page 194.
Gagné also relies on Thomas Costain’s The White and The Gold: The French Regime in Canada. Toronto: Doubleday Canada, 1954. Costain is largely known as a writer of fiction however this is a work of narrative history though without the benefit of references. It’s a good read providing some imaginative details which may or may not be based upon historical sources. His colorful characterization of urban girls can be found on page 61. Nevertheless, his brief summary of the lives of Madame de La Peltrie, Marie De l’Incarnation and Jeanne Manse in Chapter XII provides a glimpse into the biographies of three women important to the founding of Québec and Montréal.
Dom Guy Oury’s Marie of the Incarnation [1599-1672] correspondence, translated by Sr. St. Domininic Kelly published by Irish Ursuline Union 2000-04-28 was the source for the quotes from Marie De l’Incarnation, see pages 297 and 314.
Alan Greer’s The People of New France. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997 provided much of the social context upon which I relied to illuminate some of the undocumented aspects of Marie’s life. For his coverage of women and their ties to the family see pp. 60-75. His quote regarding no singular “women’s position is found on p. 64. The quote from Jean Bodin and the bishop appears on p. 61. The reference to “communauté de biens” is on page 69 while the reference to a woman’s ability to “renounce the community” follows on page 70. His coverage of childbirth and midwifery appears on pp. 65-66 as does his reference to the work of Gauvreau. The spelling of “Charlebourg” rather than “Charlesbourg” reflects Gauvreau’s quote. See Gauvreau, Danielle. Québec, une ville et sa population au temps de la Nouvelle-France. Sillery: Les Presses de l’Université du Québec 1991.
For those that would be interested in a contemporay account of midwifery I would recommend Sharp, Jane, The Midwives Book: Or the Whole Art of Midwifry Discovered ed. by Elaine Hobby. New York: Oxford University Press 1999. Sharp was a seventeenth century midwife in England but her work derives from other sources such as The Compleat Midwifes Practice which relied on French sources. According to Elaine Hobby, Sharp reworked portions of the book into her own (p. xvi.) At this time, ‘humoral theory’ still dominated and one particular belief was that males were produced from the seed of the right testicle and would lie on the right-hand side of the womb (pp. xix, 36, 83). The length of the penis or “man’s yard” was of concern for physiologic reasons rather than a mere fetish for bigness. The concern was that the length should be neither too long nor too short, (p. 25). For the use of butter or other oils as lubricants see p. 148 and 161. The positioning of the mother and the supporting women is described on pp. 158-159. For the post birth instructions and procedures see pp. 163 and 272. The mixture of herbs and spices are described as “a powder of Bole, Sarcocolla, Dragons blood, Cummin and Myrrh” (p. 272).
The information regarding René-Louis Chartier de Lotbinière is courtesy of Verney’s The Good Regiment pp. 43-44, and 48 as well as The Dictionary of Canadian Biography available at http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio.php?id_nbr=703.
Trudelle's characterization of Charlesbourg is found on page 5 footnote 1 of his Paroisse De Charlesbourg which is available both online via Google Books or via Nabu Public Domain Reprints.
The information on diseases and epidemics in New France are from Mazan, Ryan M., "Analyzing Epidemics in New France: The Measles Epidemic of 1714-15" (2011). Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository. 141. http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/etd/141.
All images are credited in the main body of the texts. All transcriptions and translations were graciously provided by Christine Reno.
Bibliography for Famille: De La Mare
The details regarding the ship La Nouvelle France and its arrival date in Québec can be found in the section covering Les Filles du Roi at Migrations . This website is constantly being up updated with new information.
For the coverage of the Filles du Roi I relied on Gagné, Peter J. King’s Daughters and Founding Mothers: The Filles du Roi, 1663-1673, Volume 1. Orange Park, Florida: Quintin Publications 2001. For the quote on the ratio of men to marriageable women see page 19. The characterization of the Filles du Roi as orphans and payment to recruiters is on page 23. For the pensions to large families see page 39.
The reference to engagés and return rates to France can be found on page 105 of Moogk, Peter N., La Nouvelle France: The Making of French Canada—A Cultural History. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press 2000. For King Louis’ concern for the vulnerability of the small colonial population in New France see page 13. The quote from Jean-Baptiste Colbert regarding the appearance of Les Filles du Roi is quoted in Moogk on page 106.
For the alleged Norwegian Viking origins of the De La Mare family and name as well as their connection to the Norman invasion of England by William the Conqueror see https://www.theislandwiki.org/index.php/De_La_Mare. The discussion questioning the Norwegian origins and the weakness in the position put forth by D.C. Douglas see http://www.deloriahurst.com/deloriahurst%20page/3310.html. The quote from T.D. Kendrick on the Danish composition of Rollo’s army can be found in the 2013 edition of his 1930 History of the Vikings. New York: Fall River Press 2013, p. 195.
The surname De La Mare varies throughout the historical records as well as in modern day. While I prefer De La Mare, I preserve the spelling variations used in the reference documents. The linguistic origins of the name can be found in Dauzat, Albert, Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et Prénoms de France. Paris: Librairie Larousse 1951, pp. 185, 360. Additional detail can be found in Jacob, Roland, Votre nom et son histoire: Les noms de famille au Québec. Montréal: Les Éditions de l’Homme 2006, p. 180.
The evidence of Guillaume de La Mare as treasurer for the parish of Saint-Maclou comes from Neagley, Linda E., Disciplined Exuberance: The Parish Church of Saint-Maclou and Late Gothic Architecture in Rouen. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, p. 64. Neagley’s source comes from Series G, G6874 of the cartulaire for the parish fabrique which are housed in the Archives départementales de Seine-Maritime. Series G, G6872 and G6873 are available online. Construction for the structure was begun under the English during their occupation of Rouen and Normandy during the Hundred Years War (1337-1453). While the parish “was one of the poorest parishes in the city” the church was financed almost entirely on funds within the parish. (pp. 57-58). Despite the tough economic times of the period, the Dufour family of Rouen continued to direct its resources and attention to the construction of the church. The architectural significance of the structure, according to Neagley, stems from its characterization as “a rare example in the history of gothic architecture where a clear and coherent vision is manifested in the totality of its execution.” (p.24).
An additional historical account of Saint-Maclou as told through the tenures of its Curés (parish priests) can be found in Prévost, Chanoine L., Histoire de La Paroisse Et Des Curés De Saint-Maclou: depuis la Fondation jusqu’à nos jours (1219-1966). Rouen: Editions Maugard, 1970.
The many images from the parish registers are appropriately referenced in the main post. My continued thanks to Professor Christine Reno for her expert paleographic and translation assistance.
For my coverage of the Wars of Religion in Rouen I relied primarily on Benedict, Philip, Rouen during the Wars of Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. The percentage of Protestants in 1560-61 in Rouen and the anticipated triumph of their Protestant cause to transform France can be found on pages 52-54. The description of Catholic efforts at summary executions of Protestants and the rescue efforts by Protestants as well as the quote describing the Protestant actions at the Corpus Christi Day procession are found on pages 61-62. One example of the virulence of the Catholic reaction to Protestantism is Benedict’s account of the cure of Saint-Maclou and grand vicar of the cathedral, Adam Sécard whose anti-Protestantism was so pronounced he had to be reprimanded by parlement in 1552 for his violence. See p. 67 and footnote 2 on page 69.
For Benedict’s discussion of the differences in world views of the Protestants and Catholics and the concept of Protestantism as “pollution” see page 63-64. According to Benedict, Protestant tactics to attack and mock rituals and ritual objects was a “desecration, and desecration placed the community in danger” of divine retribution. For a lengthier discussion on the meaning of religious violence during this period see Chapter 6 “The Rites of Violence” in Davis, Natalie Z., Society and Culture in Early Modern France. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1975, pp. 152-188. Also of interest is her coverage of women during the Wars of Religion in Chapter 3 “City Women and Religious Change” on pages 65-96. Davis records one instance in Aix-en-Provence where a group of female butchers beat and hung a wife of a Protestant bookseller. (p. 93).
Benedict’s coverage of Protestant efforts to seek assistance from the English resulting in the Treaty of Hampton Court is found on page 100. His coverage of the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre appears on pages 125-130. His characterization of the post massacre period through the 1580s as relatively peaceful is on page 163. The quote regarding the role of notables bourgeois and marchands appears on page 6.
Another useful source for this period is Lloyd, Howell A., The Rouen Campaign 1590-1592: Politics, Warfare and the Early-Modern State. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973. Lloyd covers the cosmopolitan nature of Rouen on pages 2-3. Lloyd’s book is a detailed account of the activities in Rouen during Henry IV’s attempts to defeat the Spanish backed Catholic League to secure his claim to the throne of France. Capturing Rouen was essential to this goal.
For an understanding of the complicated governmental structure of Early Modern France, I recommend Harding, Robert R., Anatomy of a Power Elite: The Provincial Governors of Early Modern France. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1978. The structure of government and the balance of power between the King and the different layers of local and regional governments is essential to understand in order to fully grasp the effect of the spread of Protestantism and the Wars of Religion as well as the efforts of the French Kings to exercise their authority and power to govern the people of France directly rather than through intermediaries.
All of the images found in the parish registers are available on line at http://www.archivesdepartementales76.net/. I could not find any evidence for the first child of David De La Mare and Anne de Bussevestre. The only mention I have seen comes from Fichier Origine’s entry for Marie De La Mare at http://fichierorigine.com/recherche?numero=242258. I was able to verify the parish entries for her other siblings all of which are available online. The references are:
Alexandre, 04-01-1638, 3E 00999-1636-1638- Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou) image 280 of 345; Jeanne, 28-03-1639, 4E 02080- 1638-164 – Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou) image 21 of 70; Guillaume, 29-05-1640, 4E 02080 - 164 -1641- Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou), image 29 of 79; Anne, 26-09-1642, 4E 02081 – 1641-1642 – Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou) image 130 of 177; Michel, 01-01-1647, 3E 00999 – 1643- 1648/01/18 – Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou) image 265 of 319; Robert, 30-03-1649, 3E 00999 – 1648- 1651- Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou) image 58 of 167 and Marguerite, 19-02-1652, 3E 00999 – 1651 – 1655 – Rouen (paroisse Saint-Maclou) image 12 of 180.
Bibliography for Personne: Guillaume Regnault Part Three
For information on transatlantic voyages see Moogk, Peter N., La Nouvelle France: The Making of French Canada—A Cultural History. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press 2000, pp 124-125. His characterization of churchwardens and fabriques can be found on page 73.
The information on the Sénéchaussée and the Custom of Paris comes from Wikipedia. The information on Chartier de Lotbinière come from a variety of sources. See André Vachon, “CHARTIER DE LOTBINIÈRE, LOUIS-THÉANDRE,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 1, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed June 18, 2017, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/chartier_de_lotbiniere_louis_theandre_1E.html. See also Kingsford, William, History of Canada: Canada under French Rule. Toronto: Rowsell & Hutchison 1887, pp. 318-319, 322, 332-333, 347-348.
For a description of Guillaume’s duties working for Lotbinière see Our Tangled French Canadian Roots: A History of The People who were Part of Our Gregoire, Adam, Martel and Beaudry Lines by Jan Gregoire Coombs, Middleton Wisconsin, 2009, p. 51 and Bessière, Armand, La Domesticité Dans La Colonie Laurentienne Au XVIIE Et Au Début de XVIIIE Siècle (1640-1710). PhD Dissertation, 2007.
The information regarding Guillaume’s payment from the Crown to remain in Canada comes from Verney, Jack, The Good Regiment: The Carignan-Salières Regiment in Canada 1665-1668. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press 1991, p. 111.
The copy of the marriage record comes from Quebec, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1967, Ancestry.com. The data for the children comes from a combination of the Drouin collection and Ancestry.com. Quebec, Genealogical Dictionary of Canadian Families (Tanguay Collection), 1608-1890 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011. See also Gagné, Peter J. King’s Daughters and Founding Mothers: The Filles du Roi, 1663-1673, Volume 1. Orange Park, Florida: Quintin Publications 2001 pp. 193-194.
There are multiple versions of Catalogne’s map available online. For a book version see “Seigniorial Settlement in 1709” Trudel, Marcel, Atlas de la Nouvelle-France/An Atlas of New France. Les Presses de l'Université Laval, Québec, 1968, p. 166.
The Notarial Records of Gilles Rageot come from Ancestry.com. Quebec, Canada, Notarial Records, 1626-1935 [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016. Original data: Fonds Cour Supérieure. Greffes de notaires. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
The reference to Guillaume’s potash contract can be found in Trudel, Marcel. Histoire De La Nouvelle-France, Volume IV, La Seigneurie de la Compagnie des Indes Occidentale, 1663-1674. Québec: Fides, 1997 fn 45 p. 435.
Guillaume’s service as a church warden has been documented in Malouin, Reine, Charlesbourg 1660-1949. Québec: Les Editions La Liberté, 1972, pp. 47-48. Trudelle, Charles, Paroisse de Charlesbourg. Québec: A. Coté et Cie, 1887, p. 32; 314. Trudelle’s book is available in its entirety for download via Google Books. Marcel Trudel’s recollection on the churchwarden’s place in the local community can be found in Trudel, Marcel, Memoirs of a Less Travelled Road: A Historian’s Life, translated by Jane Brierley. Montréal: Véhicule Press 2002, pp. 23-24. The statement that Guillaume worked for the Jesuits can be found on page 100 in Linda Turner's The Lemire (La Mere) family. St. Paul 1978. It is self published and is available online at Ancestry.com as well as librairies throughout the nation.
Bibliography for Personne: Guillaume Regnault Part Two
Much of my narrative account of the Regiment relies on Jack Verney’s The Good Regiment: The Carignan-Salières Regiment in Canada 1665-1668. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University Press 1991. Although perhaps less useful from an analytical perspective, I have found it worthwhile to review earlier accounts of the Carignan-Regiment as the style of historical writing differed in the late 19th and early 20th Century. Historians from this earlier period were more prone to inserting extended quotes from primary or contemporary sources which can be a goldmine for those who do not have ready access to national or local archives. For example there is an extended quote on pages 339-340 recording the Dutch reaction to Courcelle’s expedition in Kingsford, William, History of Canada: Canada under French Rule Toronto: Rowsell & Hutchison 1887.
“We learn that ‘by mistake of his guides’ M. de Courcelles ‘hapned to fall short of the castles of the Mauhaukes, and to encamp within two miles of Schonectade.’ The arrival caused a deputation to ask ‘Monsier Coursell’ why he brought ‘such a body of armed men into the Dominions of His Majesty. Surely,’ says the chronicler, ‘so bould and hardy attempt hath not hapned in any age’: M. de Courcelles was surprised to learn that the country was claimed by England, and that there was a garrison at Albany of sixty soldiers, with nine pieces of ordnance, under Captain Baker.’ Those who observed the words and countenance of Monsieur Coursell saw him disturbed in minde that the King was Master of these parts of the country where he expected to have found the Dutch interest uppermost, saying that the King of England did grasp all America.’”
Another such example is Lovell, John, Lovell’s history of the Dominion of Canada, and other parts of British America . Montreal: Lovell Printing and Publishing Company 1876.
The quote from François Le Mercier and the quote from Marquis de Salières regarding the building of forts come from the CBC series Le Canada: A People’s History.
I relied on Marcel Trudel’s work on the population of Canada and the effect of such a large influx of troops. See Trudel, Marcel, The Beginnings of New France 1524-1663 Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1973, p. 246 and Trudel, marcel, La Population Du Canada En 1663, Fides: Montréal, pp. 2, 11.
The correspondence of Marie De L’Incarnation are required reading for anyone interested in the early French settlement. Not just religious in focus, she documents in some detail on the daily activities of the colony for an extended period of time. I used the Dome Guy Oury edition Marie of the Incarnation [1599 – 1672]: Correspondence translated from the French by Sr. St. Dominic Kelly published by Irish Ursuline Union, 2000.
The work of William B. Munro is available via Google Books and through Archive.org. See Munro, William Bennett, Documents relating to the seigniorial tenure in Canada, 1598-1854. Toronto: The Champlain Society 1908, p. xxxiv.
Much of the content in this post relies on research I conducted over five years ago in which I relied on a number of other online resources for quotes and narrative overview which are no longer valid URLs. Several of these quotes and much of the narrative can also be found in Verney.
Bibliography for Personne: Guillaume Regnault Part One
Despite the presence of some errors in Tanguay’s work, his 7 volume Dictionnaire généalogique des familles canadiennes françaises depuis les origins de la colonie jusqu’à nos jours is a good first reference for anyone interested in French-Canadien geneaology. It is also available as the Genealogical Dictionary of Canadian Families (Tanguay Collection), 1608-1890, on Ancestry.com.
Emile Vaillancourt collaborated with Archange Godbout in producing La Conquête du Canada par les Normands: Biographie de la première generation normande du Canada. Montréal: G. Ducharme 1930. He profiles Guillaume on page 222. Unfortunately he also cites 1644 as the year of birth.
I am grateful to Dominique Ritchot of Fichier Origine for providing me with the correct baptismal date for Guillaume and for the link to the Saint-Jouin parish registers in the archives. As a result I was able to locate all of Guillaume’s siblings in the register. All of the extracts from the parish registers come from the Archives départementales de Seine-Maritime online at http://www.archivesdepartementales76.net/. The Regnault family can be found in 4E 02934-1623-1657-Saint-Jouin: Anne (image 37 of 90) Catherine (image 41 of 90), Guillaume (image 49 of 90), Guillaume (image 52 of 90), Françoise (image 61 of 90), Marie (image 72 of 90), and Antoine (image 84 of 90).
Unfortunately there is no baptismal record for Guillaume’s father due to a gap in the parish registers. They were probably destroyed or lost at some point in history. The best guess places the baptismal date for the paternal Guillaume in the period of 1610-1612. This is based upon the understanding of the relative ages of marriage during 17th Century France. The historian Pierre Goubert has noted that women married at a later age during this period, usually between the ages of 23 and 25 while men usually married between the ages of 27 and 30. The marriage date of Guillaume Regnault and Susanne De La Haye is not found in the parish registers of Saint-Jouin though it probably occurred either in 1638 or 1639 given the baptismal date of their first child Anne on February 1, 1640.
Goubert’s The French Peasantry in the Seventeenth Century; translated by Ian Patterson (Cambridge University Press 1986) is a short but dense account. I soon abandoned taking notes in favor of photocopying entire chapters of the book for later reference. He covers the age of marriage on page 64 and the death of a child on page 52. He notes that much of the time the parents did not even attend the funeral as they are not noted on the burial entry in the parish records.
The standard account of the Carignan-Salières Regiment is Jack Verney’s The Good Regiment: The Carignan-Salières Regiment in Canada 1665-1668. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University Press 1991. Like Goubert, Verney’s account is less than 150 pages but dense with information. Verney’s account attempts to correct or to find the reality behind the myth spun by the nationalist historians such as Benjamin Sulte and Abbé Lionel Groulx. According to Verney, Groulx sought “to turn the province of Québec into a spiritual and national homeland for Franco-Americans, a refuge…to provide a bulwark against the advancing tide of Protestant, English-speaking materialism." (p. vii). For Verney, the men of the regiment were not the progenitors of some virtuous race or people but rather “a workaday seventeenth-century infantry unit sent to fight overseas." (p.ix). Verney's coverage of soldier recruitment appears on pages 7-8, 11 and 24.
The full version of the soldiers who remained in Canada can be found on the New France New Horizons website at http://champlain2004.org/html/11/03_e.html.
I learned of Michel Langlois’ research and assessment that Guillaume Regnault was not on the ship La Paix from the Migrations website. This site specializes in the soldiers of the Carignan-Salières Regiment and the Filles du Roi. The site’s layout is very busy but it is packed with information including identifying the ships and dates of arrival for the soldiers and the Filles du Roi. Their entry on Guillaume (Regnauld) can be found at http://www.migrations.fr/compagniescarignan/compagnielacolonelle.htm. One of the site coordinators Bernard Quillivic suggests that Guillaume may have arrived in 1662 as a soldier with the Governor D’Avaugourt. I think this is improbable given that Guillaume would only have been 16 or 17 years of age.
The most direct evidence that Guillaume was already in Canada before the soldiers arrived appears in Trudel., Marcel, Histoire de la Nouvelle–France: Volume IV, La seigneurie de la Compagnie des Indes occidentales 1663-1674. Québec : Fides 1997. In footnote 87 on page 308 Trudel lists Guillaume Regnaud as one of 12 habitants who enlisted. The use of the term habitant suggests that Guillaume was already established in Québec and Trudel would not have referred to him as such if he had been a soldier. The text reads in French: “Il faut prendre garde qu’ily avait des soldats au pays avant 1665, qui y sont encore en 1666, au nombre de 9, et que nous portons au catalogue, comme aussi 5 militaires qui se sont retires du service en arrivent, pour s’integrer à la population. Enfin, il faut conserver dans le catalogue une douzaine d’habitants qui se sont enrôlés formellement dans les troupes de 1665.” His coverage of immigration in 1665 appears on pages 233-239.
Trudel's book contains over 800 pages of text plus what could be a valuable bibliography. Unfortunately my ability to read French is limited and such a tome would take me years to finish though I have no doubt the volume would prove illuminating.
The reference to engagés comes from Greer, Alan, The People of New France. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997, pp. 15-16.
Bibliography for Evenement: Charivari and Youth Groups
The two main sources used for this post are Davis, Natalie Z., Society and Culture in Early Modern France. Stanford: Stanford University Press 1975 and Mandrou, Robert, Introduction to Modern France, 1500-1640: An Essay in Historical Psychology; translated by R. E. Hallmark. New York: Harper & Row 1975.
Davis’ book is a collection of eight essays of which the bulk of this post draws on Chapter 4 “The Reasons of Misrule” pp. 97-123. The song quoted at the opening of the post appears in Chapter 7 “Printing and the People” p. 200. It was translated from the French by Christine Reno. The original French is
Quand ils ont sceu au village
Que ce mary
N’avoit non plus de courage
Ils ont faict charyvary
Pour la riser….
Ent res grande diligence
Un bon garcon
Du village par plaisance
Fit la chanson.
Mandrou’s book is a brilliant look at the mentalité of the age. I drew primarily from Chapter 9, “Temporary forces for solidarity: youth societies and feast days.” The extended quote regarding the Feast of Fools appears on pp. 135-136. It is a contemporary account from the Cordeliers of Antibes and Mandrou’s source for the quote was Thiers, J.B., Traité des jeux et divertissements (Paris 1686). Mandrou’s assertion that the youth groups helped spread the Reformation appears on p. 134.
Bibliography for Nom: Regnault
The origins of the name Regnault are covered in Dauzat, Albert, Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et Prénoms de France. Paris: Librairie Larousse 1951, p. 516 and Morlet, Marie-Thérèse, Les Noms de Personne sur le Territoire de L’Ancienne Gaule de VIe au XII Siècle, Vol. 1: Les Noms Issus du Germanique Continental et Les Créations Gallo-Germaniques. Paris: Éditions Du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 1968, pp. 183-188. Morlet further notes that with respect to the elements Ragan and Rag, “Cet élément se rattache au got. ragin, v. isl. regin, decision, v. sax. regan, puissant; got. raginon, conseiller, v. nor. ragna, invoquer. L’élément rag- que nous relevons à côté de ragin doit représenter une forme courte” p. 183. Morlet’s book is of interest given its focus on the names appearing from the 6th to the 12th Century.
For a more recent work that focuses solely on the family names prevalent in Québec see Jacob, Roland, Votre nom et son histoire: Les noms de famille au Québec. Montréal: Les Éditions de l’Homme 2006. Jacob covers the surname Renaud in multiple pages but primarily on p. 84. He covers the conversion from the Roman naming convention to the Frankish naming convention on p. 49. See also page 18 where he classifies names of Germanic origin as deriving from the Franks.
The citation for the frequency of the name Regnault in fifteenth century Normandy comes from the open access pre-print, subsequently published as Darlu, Pierre; Bloothooft, Gerrit; Boattini, Alessio; Brouwer, Leendeert; Brouwer, Matthijs; Brunet, Guy; Chareille, Pascal; Chesire, James; Coates, Richard; Longley, Paul; Dräger, Kathrin; Desjardins, Bertrand; Hanks, Patrick; Mandemakers, Kees; Mateos, Pablo;Pettener, Davide; Useli, Antonella; and Manni, Franz (2012) “The Family Name as Socio-Cultural Feature and Genetic Metaphor; From Concepts to Methods, “ Human Biology: Vol. 84: Iss 2, Article 5. Available at http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1007&context=humbiol_preprints
According to the authors the “two-element naming system still in use in France today” emerged in the 11th Century. The paper also covers, among many other topics, “the Patronymic stability: Normandy 1383 to 1515”.
Linda Turner’s The Lemire (La Mere) family. St. Paul, 1978 appears to be self-published. It is available online at Ancestry.com as well as some libraries throughout the nation.
Jan Gregoire Coombs’ Our Tangled French Canadian Roots: A History of The People who were Part of Our Gregoire, Adam, Martel and Beaudry Lines (Middleton Wisconsin, 2009) covers Guillaume Regnault on p. 51.
Bibliography for Place: Saint-Jouin-sur-Mer
All of the extant parish registers from Saint-Jouin are available online from the Archives départementales de Seine-Maritime. They are a challenge to decipher as many are in poor condition and the scribes gave no thought for neat penmanship. I am fortunate to have had the paleographic and translation assistance of Professor Christine Reno who patiently waded through the many images I sent her way.
Finding information on the history of Saint-Jouin was not an easy task. There is little to no information available in English and there is little direct mention of Saint-Jouin even in French sources that I uncovered. I was delighted to come across A. Lechevalier’s Recherches Historiques Sur Les Communes du Canton de Criquetot-L’Esneval Depuis L’Époque Féodale Proprement Dite Jusqu’a la Révolution (Paris: Librarie Normande, 1897). Lechevalier offers several pages directly on Saint-Jouin. The book is available in downloadable PDF via Google Books.
The work of Abbé Jean Benoît Désiré Cochet provided some important details though I barely dedicated the time and attention his work deserves. His Les églises de l’arrondissement du Havre (Ingouville: Gaffney frères, 1845-1846) was particularly useful and is also available in Google Books.
A brief history of the church is available from Saint-Jouin’s website at http://www.st-jouin-bruneval.fr/histoire/eglise/.
For background reading on Normandy and France during the Middle Ages I recommend Felice Lifshitz’s The Norman Conquest of Pious Neustria: Historiographic Discourse and Saintly Relics 684-1090 (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies 1995). Lifshitz’ study covers the period of history after Roman Gaul. With the arrival of the Frankish tribes and the establishment of the Merovingian dynasty the former Roman Gaul became known by the Latin term “Francia” while the area of much of modern day Normandy was part of the Frankish province of Neustria. With the arrival of the Vikings or “Norsemen” in the 10th Century the lands in and around the Seine Valley became known as Normandy.
Patrick J. Geary’s Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988) provides a brisk survey of the Merovingian period (476-750 CE). Geary sees the Merovingian Period in terms of its continuity with Late Antiquity. He illustrates the fluid interchange between the Roman and “Barbarian” cultures and how they cross pollinated one another. It is a mistake to view this period as a “Dark Age” void of “civilization.”